Diabetes|How to manage diabetes?
What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with “sweet urine,” and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.
Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
Symptoms of diabetes
- increased urine output,
- excessive thirst,
- weight loss,
- skin problems
- slow healing wounds,
- yeast infections,
- blurred vision, and
- Tingling or numbness in the feet or toes.
Some Tips for managing diabetes
It is advisable to eat regular meals and spread them evenly throughout the day. The diet should be lower in fat, particularly saturated fat. I diet should be rich in nutrients and should help in preventing chronic diseases such as obesity and heart disease.
An exercise routine is also necessary to burn the extra calories. Without exercise the body gains weight and being overweight or obese can make it difficult to manage diabetes and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and cancer.
Reduce high calorie food
In order to reduce the intake of high calorie food we should limit foods such as take away foods, sweet biscuits, cakes, sugar sweetened drinks and packed fruit juices, chocolate and savory snacks.
Reduce saturated fats
It also advisable to reduce the consumption of saturated fat as it increases LDL cholesterol levels. Animal foods like fatty meat, milk, butter and cheese are rich in saturated fats. Palm oil and coconut milk are rich source of saturated fat.
Food Items that helps in managing diabetes
In addition to the above information, there are some foods which can also help in regulating the diabetes level in our body.
Avocados are rich in monounsaturated fat. They help in improving cholesterol levels and decreasing your risk of heart disease. In a study it was found out that, people eating unsaturated fats have 25% less chance of developing type 2 diabetes.
Antioxidants present in apples help in lowering LDL cholesterol levels. The Harvard School of Public Health examined the diets of 200,000 people and found that those who reported eating five or more apples a week had a 23 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with subjects who did not eat any apples.
Beans are high in fiber and a good source of protein. In a 2012 study, researchers found that eating about a cup of legumes daily resulted in better blood sugar control (for both blood glucose and A1C) and lower blood pressure.
Broccoli is a rich source of Vitamin A and Vitamin C. It is also rich in folate and fiber. It contains high levels of sulfur-containing compounds known as glucosinolates, which have potential anticancer effects; and helps in reducing heart disease risk.
Nuts are a good source of unsaturated fats, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, vitamin E, plant sterols, and L-arginine, which makes artery walls more flexible and less prone to blood clots. They also help in improving blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes.
Carrots are an excellent source of vitamin A. They contain an antioxidant called beta-carotene. According to a study reported in 2013 from the Stanford University School of Medicine, beta-carotene may even help lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes among people who have a genetic predisposition for the disease.
Green tea contains antioxidant-rich flavonoids called catechins, which seem to reduce the risk of heart disease by helping blood vessels dilate. It also improves cholesterol levels, reduce stress, and reduce the risk of a number of cancers.
Asparagus is a non-starchy vegetable with only 5 grams of carb, 20 calories, and almost 2 grams of dietary fiber per serving. It’s especially high in an antioxidant called glutathione, which plays a key role in easing the effects of aging and many diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.
Red grapefruit is highly rich in antioxidants. It helps in decreasing LDL (bad) cholesterol by 20 percent and triglycerides by 17 percent. It also helps in improving HDL (good) cholesterol levels and lower blood pressure in people with both normal and high blood pressure. It is also rich in Vitamin C.
Some fishes like salmon, mackerel, herring, lake trout, sardines, halibut, and albacore tunas are low in unhealthy saturated fat and cholesterol. They are a good source of omega-3 fatty acids. According to the American Heart Association, omega-3 fatty acids lower the risk of arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeats), which can lead to sudden death. Omega-3s also decrease triglyceride levels, slow the growth rate of atherosclerotic plaque, lower blood pressure, and curb inflammation. Further, ongoing studies are evaluating their effectiveness for decreasing the risk for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
Water melons, cantaloupe melon and honey dew melon
Melons are good source pf Vitamin A and Vitamin C. Watermelons are a good source of the antioxidant lycopene, which may help protect against some cancers and cell damage associated with heart disease.
Berries such as blueberries, cranberries and raspberries are rich in antioxidants called anthocyanins which help in lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes. Antioxidants found in cranberries may reduce the risk of heart disease by reducing LDL (bad) cholesterol, maintaining or improving HDL (good) cholesterol, and lowering blood pressure. Raspberries are also rich in Vitamin C and are beneficial for bone and skin health, as well as cancer and heart disease prevention.
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